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The tragedy of greece: a lecture delivered for the professor of greek to candidates for honours in li - Tragedy - Wikipedia



In literary terms, tragedy is a form of drama in which there is a display of human suffering and often catharsis for the audience. Tragedy, as we know it in Western culture, has its foundation in ancient Greece about 2,500 years ago. It has evolved over the millennia and had an important role in many different cultures and eras, such as in the time of the Roman Republic, in Elizabethan England, and including up until the present day.

There is some dispute over the origins of the term “tragedy.” Generally it is understood that the word comes from the the Classical Greek word trag(o)-aoidiā , meaning “goat song.” There are a few different reasons posited for what role the goat played in the first iterations of tragedy. Some say that a goat was given as a prize to whomever sang the best tragic song in a competition, while others argue that a goat was sacrificed while choral dancing occurred. Yet one more possible etymological root is from the Greek work trygodia , meaning “ode of the grape harvest,” as these events may have occurred during that harvest.

We refer to many large and small events as tragedies in daily life, whether it’s losing a loved one or a catastrophic natural disaster such as an earthquake that leads to many deaths. However, the literary definition of tragedy generally demands that the downfall of the protagonist does not come chiefly from external forces, but instead from the character’s own errors and flaws.

Wasim is a 16-year-old Kurdish boy who fled Mosul, Iraq, seeking a safe haven after Islamic State (IS) executed his father. Unfortunately for Wasim, he ended up stuck in a tiny, dirty cell in a small-town police station in northwest Greece. When I met Wasim, he had been locked up around the clock for a month, without access to interpreters, psychological care, or even games or books to occupy his mind.

Wasim is one of hundreds of children traveling alone who have been detained this year in so-called protective custody while they await a space in Greece’s overburdened shelter system. The country’s chronic failure to provide adequate care for unaccompanied children has become more acute due to increased arrivals and callous inaction by other European countries.

As we saw in our lecture on Greek myth and religion, the Greeks had no holy text of divine commandments to live by. Instead, the Greeks looked to the example of mythical heroes. These myths were not set in stone. Rather, each generation reinvented the old myths, telling the same old story from a new perspective or with a different emphasis. This constant reinterpretation kept the Greek myths fresh and relevant. In short, it brought myth to life. The Greeks called this process the theatre .

Theatre played a central role in Greek culture. Any polis worth living in held annual theatrical festivals in honor of Dionysus. Yet theatre would reach its apex in the Panathenaic Festival of Athens, in which the greatest playwrights competed to perform their works.

Satyr plays are the oldest sort of play. Satyrs are goat men, drinking buddies of Dionysus and known for their promiscuous behavior. We know little about the early history of satyr plays besides that they were part of a ritual to Dionysus, and that they were generally lewd and low brow, a lot of codpieces and hitting people over the head with things. Imagine if The Three Stooges did a burlesque show, and you've got a pretty good idea of a satyr play. After the invention of tragedy and comedy, satyr plays continued to be performed during festivals to provide comic relief between the heavy tragedies.

late 14c., "play or other serious literary work with an unhappy ending," from Old French tragedie (14c.), from Latin tragedia "a tragedy," from Greek tragodia "a dramatic poem or play in formal language and having an unhappy resolution," apparently literally "goat song," from tragos "goat" + oide "song." The connection may be via satyric drama, from which tragedy later developed, in which actors or singers were dressed in goatskins to represent satyrs. But many other theories have been made (including "singer who competes for a goat as a prize"), and even the "goat" connection is at times questioned. Meaning "any unhappy event, disaster" is from c.1500.

In literary terms, tragedy is a form of drama in which there is a display of human suffering and often catharsis for the audience. Tragedy, as we know it in Western culture, has its foundation in ancient Greece about 2,500 years ago. It has evolved over the millennia and had an important role in many different cultures and eras, such as in the time of the Roman Republic, in Elizabethan England, and including up until the present day.

There is some dispute over the origins of the term “tragedy.” Generally it is understood that the word comes from the the Classical Greek word trag(o)-aoidiā , meaning “goat song.” There are a few different reasons posited for what role the goat played in the first iterations of tragedy. Some say that a goat was given as a prize to whomever sang the best tragic song in a competition, while others argue that a goat was sacrificed while choral dancing occurred. Yet one more possible etymological root is from the Greek work trygodia , meaning “ode of the grape harvest,” as these events may have occurred during that harvest.

We refer to many large and small events as tragedies in daily life, whether it’s losing a loved one or a catastrophic natural disaster such as an earthquake that leads to many deaths. However, the literary definition of tragedy generally demands that the downfall of the protagonist does not come chiefly from external forces, but instead from the character’s own errors and flaws.

Wasim is a 16-year-old Kurdish boy who fled Mosul, Iraq, seeking a safe haven after Islamic State (IS) executed his father. Unfortunately for Wasim, he ended up stuck in a tiny, dirty cell in a small-town police station in northwest Greece. When I met Wasim, he had been locked up around the clock for a month, without access to interpreters, psychological care, or even games or books to occupy his mind.

Wasim is one of hundreds of children traveling alone who have been detained this year in so-called protective custody while they await a space in Greece’s overburdened shelter system. The country’s chronic failure to provide adequate care for unaccompanied children has become more acute due to increased arrivals and callous inaction by other European countries.

As we saw in our lecture on Greek myth and religion, the Greeks had no holy text of divine commandments to live by. Instead, the Greeks looked to the example of mythical heroes. These myths were not set in stone. Rather, each generation reinvented the old myths, telling the same old story from a new perspective or with a different emphasis. This constant reinterpretation kept the Greek myths fresh and relevant. In short, it brought myth to life. The Greeks called this process the theatre .

Theatre played a central role in Greek culture. Any polis worth living in held annual theatrical festivals in honor of Dionysus. Yet theatre would reach its apex in the Panathenaic Festival of Athens, in which the greatest playwrights competed to perform their works.

Satyr plays are the oldest sort of play. Satyrs are goat men, drinking buddies of Dionysus and known for their promiscuous behavior. We know little about the early history of satyr plays besides that they were part of a ritual to Dionysus, and that they were generally lewd and low brow, a lot of codpieces and hitting people over the head with things. Imagine if The Three Stooges did a burlesque show, and you've got a pretty good idea of a satyr play. After the invention of tragedy and comedy, satyr plays continued to be performed during festivals to provide comic relief between the heavy tragedies.

late 14c., "play or other serious literary work with an unhappy ending," from Old French tragedie (14c.), from Latin tragedia "a tragedy," from Greek tragodia "a dramatic poem or play in formal language and having an unhappy resolution," apparently literally "goat song," from tragos "goat" + oide "song." The connection may be via satyric drama, from which tragedy later developed, in which actors or singers were dressed in goatskins to represent satyrs. But many other theories have been made (including "singer who competes for a goat as a prize"), and even the "goat" connection is at times questioned. Meaning "any unhappy event, disaster" is from c.1500.

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In literary terms, tragedy is a form of drama in which there is a display of human suffering and often catharsis for the audience. Tragedy, as we know it in Western culture, has its foundation in ancient Greece about 2,500 years ago. It has evolved over the millennia and had an important role in many different cultures and eras, such as in the time of the Roman Republic, in Elizabethan England, and including up until the present day.

There is some dispute over the origins of the term “tragedy.” Generally it is understood that the word comes from the the Classical Greek word trag(o)-aoidiā , meaning “goat song.” There are a few different reasons posited for what role the goat played in the first iterations of tragedy. Some say that a goat was given as a prize to whomever sang the best tragic song in a competition, while others argue that a goat was sacrificed while choral dancing occurred. Yet one more possible etymological root is from the Greek work trygodia , meaning “ode of the grape harvest,” as these events may have occurred during that harvest.

We refer to many large and small events as tragedies in daily life, whether it’s losing a loved one or a catastrophic natural disaster such as an earthquake that leads to many deaths. However, the literary definition of tragedy generally demands that the downfall of the protagonist does not come chiefly from external forces, but instead from the character’s own errors and flaws.

In literary terms, tragedy is a form of drama in which there is a display of human suffering and often catharsis for the audience. Tragedy, as we know it in Western culture, has its foundation in ancient Greece about 2,500 years ago. It has evolved over the millennia and had an important role in many different cultures and eras, such as in the time of the Roman Republic, in Elizabethan England, and including up until the present day.

There is some dispute over the origins of the term “tragedy.” Generally it is understood that the word comes from the the Classical Greek word trag(o)-aoidiā , meaning “goat song.” There are a few different reasons posited for what role the goat played in the first iterations of tragedy. Some say that a goat was given as a prize to whomever sang the best tragic song in a competition, while others argue that a goat was sacrificed while choral dancing occurred. Yet one more possible etymological root is from the Greek work trygodia , meaning “ode of the grape harvest,” as these events may have occurred during that harvest.

We refer to many large and small events as tragedies in daily life, whether it’s losing a loved one or a catastrophic natural disaster such as an earthquake that leads to many deaths. However, the literary definition of tragedy generally demands that the downfall of the protagonist does not come chiefly from external forces, but instead from the character’s own errors and flaws.

Wasim is a 16-year-old Kurdish boy who fled Mosul, Iraq, seeking a safe haven after Islamic State (IS) executed his father. Unfortunately for Wasim, he ended up stuck in a tiny, dirty cell in a small-town police station in northwest Greece. When I met Wasim, he had been locked up around the clock for a month, without access to interpreters, psychological care, or even games or books to occupy his mind.

Wasim is one of hundreds of children traveling alone who have been detained this year in so-called protective custody while they await a space in Greece’s overburdened shelter system. The country’s chronic failure to provide adequate care for unaccompanied children has become more acute due to increased arrivals and callous inaction by other European countries.

In literary terms, tragedy is a form of drama in which there is a display of human suffering and often catharsis for the audience. Tragedy, as we know it in Western culture, has its foundation in ancient Greece about 2,500 years ago. It has evolved over the millennia and had an important role in many different cultures and eras, such as in the time of the Roman Republic, in Elizabethan England, and including up until the present day.

There is some dispute over the origins of the term “tragedy.” Generally it is understood that the word comes from the the Classical Greek word trag(o)-aoidiā , meaning “goat song.” There are a few different reasons posited for what role the goat played in the first iterations of tragedy. Some say that a goat was given as a prize to whomever sang the best tragic song in a competition, while others argue that a goat was sacrificed while choral dancing occurred. Yet one more possible etymological root is from the Greek work trygodia , meaning “ode of the grape harvest,” as these events may have occurred during that harvest.

We refer to many large and small events as tragedies in daily life, whether it’s losing a loved one or a catastrophic natural disaster such as an earthquake that leads to many deaths. However, the literary definition of tragedy generally demands that the downfall of the protagonist does not come chiefly from external forces, but instead from the character’s own errors and flaws.

Wasim is a 16-year-old Kurdish boy who fled Mosul, Iraq, seeking a safe haven after Islamic State (IS) executed his father. Unfortunately for Wasim, he ended up stuck in a tiny, dirty cell in a small-town police station in northwest Greece. When I met Wasim, he had been locked up around the clock for a month, without access to interpreters, psychological care, or even games or books to occupy his mind.

Wasim is one of hundreds of children traveling alone who have been detained this year in so-called protective custody while they await a space in Greece’s overburdened shelter system. The country’s chronic failure to provide adequate care for unaccompanied children has become more acute due to increased arrivals and callous inaction by other European countries.

As we saw in our lecture on Greek myth and religion, the Greeks had no holy text of divine commandments to live by. Instead, the Greeks looked to the example of mythical heroes. These myths were not set in stone. Rather, each generation reinvented the old myths, telling the same old story from a new perspective or with a different emphasis. This constant reinterpretation kept the Greek myths fresh and relevant. In short, it brought myth to life. The Greeks called this process the theatre .

Theatre played a central role in Greek culture. Any polis worth living in held annual theatrical festivals in honor of Dionysus. Yet theatre would reach its apex in the Panathenaic Festival of Athens, in which the greatest playwrights competed to perform their works.

Satyr plays are the oldest sort of play. Satyrs are goat men, drinking buddies of Dionysus and known for their promiscuous behavior. We know little about the early history of satyr plays besides that they were part of a ritual to Dionysus, and that they were generally lewd and low brow, a lot of codpieces and hitting people over the head with things. Imagine if The Three Stooges did a burlesque show, and you've got a pretty good idea of a satyr play. After the invention of tragedy and comedy, satyr plays continued to be performed during festivals to provide comic relief between the heavy tragedies.


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