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Ahistory of freedom of thought - Freedom of speech - Wikipedia



The Irish state, since gaining its independence in 1922, has been one of the few countries in Europe to maintain an unbroken record of democratic governance.

However, at the same time, this state has also been marked by a certain authoritarianism – defined as “deference to the views of established leaders and intolerance to those who dissent from these views”. Contributing to this has been, “a breakdown in the interface between Ireland’s public institutions and the Irish public” and “a presumption of secrecy that underpinned Irish government since independence”. [1] A presumption of secrecy has underpinned Irish government since independence

In plain language, until relatively recently, Irish governments and public institutions were very difficult to get information out of and very suspicious of anyone who tried. There has been some movement from this position since the early 1980s, as several pieces of legislation gave progressively more access to the public to state information.

The Irish state, since gaining its independence in 1922, has been one of the few countries in Europe to maintain an unbroken record of democratic governance.

However, at the same time, this state has also been marked by a certain authoritarianism – defined as “deference to the views of established leaders and intolerance to those who dissent from these views”. Contributing to this has been, “a breakdown in the interface between Ireland’s public institutions and the Irish public” and “a presumption of secrecy that underpinned Irish government since independence”. [1] A presumption of secrecy has underpinned Irish government since independence

In plain language, until relatively recently, Irish governments and public institutions were very difficult to get information out of and very suspicious of anyone who tried. There has been some movement from this position since the early 1980s, as several pieces of legislation gave progressively more access to the public to state information.

399BC Socrates speaks to jury at his trial: ‘If you offered to let me off this time on condition I am not any longer to speak my mind… I should say to you, “Men of Athens, I shall obey the Gods rather than you.”‘

1215 Magna Carta, wrung from the unwilling King John by his rebellious barons, is signed. It will later be regarded as the cornerstone of liberty in England.

1644 ‘Areopagitica’, a pamphlet by the poet John Milton, argues against restrictions of freedom of the press. ‘He who destroys a good book, kills reason itself.’

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various mediums, including printed and electronic media , especially published materials , should be considered a right to be exercised freely. Such freedom implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state ; its preservation may be sought through constitutional or other legal protections.

With respect to governmental information, any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public. State materials are protected due to either of two reasons: the classification of information as sensitive, classified or secret, or the relevance of the information to protecting the national interest . Many governments are also subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest.

The United Nations ' 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers". [1]

The Irish state, since gaining its independence in 1922, has been one of the few countries in Europe to maintain an unbroken record of democratic governance.

However, at the same time, this state has also been marked by a certain authoritarianism – defined as “deference to the views of established leaders and intolerance to those who dissent from these views”. Contributing to this has been, “a breakdown in the interface between Ireland’s public institutions and the Irish public” and “a presumption of secrecy that underpinned Irish government since independence”. [1] A presumption of secrecy has underpinned Irish government since independence

In plain language, until relatively recently, Irish governments and public institutions were very difficult to get information out of and very suspicious of anyone who tried. There has been some movement from this position since the early 1980s, as several pieces of legislation gave progressively more access to the public to state information.

399BC Socrates speaks to jury at his trial: ‘If you offered to let me off this time on condition I am not any longer to speak my mind… I should say to you, “Men of Athens, I shall obey the Gods rather than you.”‘

1215 Magna Carta, wrung from the unwilling King John by his rebellious barons, is signed. It will later be regarded as the cornerstone of liberty in England.

1644 ‘Areopagitica’, a pamphlet by the poet John Milton, argues against restrictions of freedom of the press. ‘He who destroys a good book, kills reason itself.’

The Irish state, since gaining its independence in 1922, has been one of the few countries in Europe to maintain an unbroken record of democratic governance.

However, at the same time, this state has also been marked by a certain authoritarianism – defined as “deference to the views of established leaders and intolerance to those who dissent from these views”. Contributing to this has been, “a breakdown in the interface between Ireland’s public institutions and the Irish public” and “a presumption of secrecy that underpinned Irish government since independence”. [1] A presumption of secrecy has underpinned Irish government since independence

In plain language, until relatively recently, Irish governments and public institutions were very difficult to get information out of and very suspicious of anyone who tried. There has been some movement from this position since the early 1980s, as several pieces of legislation gave progressively more access to the public to state information.

399BC Socrates speaks to jury at his trial: ‘If you offered to let me off this time on condition I am not any longer to speak my mind… I should say to you, “Men of Athens, I shall obey the Gods rather than you.”‘

1215 Magna Carta, wrung from the unwilling King John by his rebellious barons, is signed. It will later be regarded as the cornerstone of liberty in England.

1644 ‘Areopagitica’, a pamphlet by the poet John Milton, argues against restrictions of freedom of the press. ‘He who destroys a good book, kills reason itself.’

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various mediums, including printed and electronic media , especially published materials , should be considered a right to be exercised freely. Such freedom implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state ; its preservation may be sought through constitutional or other legal protections.

With respect to governmental information, any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public. State materials are protected due to either of two reasons: the classification of information as sensitive, classified or secret, or the relevance of the information to protecting the national interest . Many governments are also subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest.

The United Nations ' 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers". [1]

A new book co-authored by a University of Arizona faculty member and his former graduate student carries a description of ways Homo sapiens learned to trade and make deals with strangers about 40,000 years ago.

The book, " A Brief History of Liberty ," states that humans "became the wisest of primates 40,000 years ago, when we learned to make deals with strangers.”  

Co-authored by David Schmidtz , the UA's Kendrick Professor of Philosophy, and co-author Jason Brennan, a University alumnus, Wiley-Blackwell released the 280-page book this month. The book contains whole chapters on civil liberties, commerce, psychological freedom and other important topics.


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