We finde book :

The hebrews in egypt: and their exodus (classic reprint) - The Hebrews in Egypt - Essays by Ekowa.I was just thinking.



After their victory, the Hyksos established a parasitical rule of political and economic oppression — a kind of ancient Soviet Union — from which the Egyptian peasants suffered for 200 years, or until they found a way to rebel. There was another bloody civil war, culminating in a siege of the Hyksos stronghold of Avaris in 1550 BC. The warring parties negotiated a settlement in which the Hyksos would be permitted to leave peaceably. This agreement was a mistake on Egypt’s part. They should have continued the seige until the Semites starved. Had they done so, history would have taken a different, and probably a much better course through the next 3500 years.

But not all of the Hyksos left Egypt. Some remained secretly and mingled with the Egyptians. These stay-behinds became the Hebrews. One of them, Joseph, wormed his way into the confidence of the Pharaoh and was given the authority of a Viceroy. Using this authority, Joseph levied grain taxes that left the state warehouses full and left the Egyptian people with no local grain reserves. The agricultural practice of the time was to use the grain saved in good years to feed the people in poor ones. That practice, however, was predicated on the assumption that the grain would be doled out to the nation in order to provide for its continued well-being.

However, with a “Jew” holding the keys to the government’s warehouses, this assumption completely broke down. Joseph used the poor years to create a famine, which inflated grain prices, which obliged the Egyptians to sell all their property in order to buy food to eat, and, when they had no more property left to sell, to sell themselves into slavery. It was the first time in history (so far as is known) that the Jews spoiled a Gentile country through economic exploitation. They have used this same pattern again and again under one ideological disguise or another, even unto this day.

After their victory, the Hyksos established a parasitical rule of political and economic oppression — a kind of ancient Soviet Union — from which the Egyptian peasants suffered for 200 years, or until they found a way to rebel. There was another bloody civil war, culminating in a siege of the Hyksos stronghold of Avaris in 1550 BC. The warring parties negotiated a settlement in which the Hyksos would be permitted to leave peaceably. This agreement was a mistake on Egypt’s part. They should have continued the seige until the Semites starved. Had they done so, history would have taken a different, and probably a much better course through the next 3500 years.

But not all of the Hyksos left Egypt. Some remained secretly and mingled with the Egyptians. These stay-behinds became the Hebrews. One of them, Joseph, wormed his way into the confidence of the Pharaoh and was given the authority of a Viceroy. Using this authority, Joseph levied grain taxes that left the state warehouses full and left the Egyptian people with no local grain reserves. The agricultural practice of the time was to use the grain saved in good years to feed the people in poor ones. That practice, however, was predicated on the assumption that the grain would be doled out to the nation in order to provide for its continued well-being.

However, with a “Jew” holding the keys to the government’s warehouses, this assumption completely broke down. Joseph used the poor years to create a famine, which inflated grain prices, which obliged the Egyptians to sell all their property in order to buy food to eat, and, when they had no more property left to sell, to sell themselves into slavery. It was the first time in history (so far as is known) that the Jews spoiled a Gentile country through economic exploitation. They have used this same pattern again and again under one ideological disguise or another, even unto this day.

ACCORDING to biblical tradition, the Hebrews are peoples descended from Shem, one of Noah's sons, through Eber, the eponymous ancestor, and Abraham. Gen. 7:22 f., reports that the flood destroyed all life except that in Noah's ark; consequently, the whole human family descended from Noah and his sons: Japheth, Ham and Shem. As yet, not all of the names of eponymous ancestors in the family lines can be identified, 1 but some probabilities are listed in Chart 6.

From Shem, through Arpachshad and Shelah came Eber, the eponymous ancestor of the Hebrews, and from his descendants through Peleg, Reu, Sereg and Nahor came Terah, the father of Abram and his brothers Nahor and Haran. It becomes clear that if "Hebrews" are descendants of Eber, then others besides those of Abraham's line would be included (see Gen. 10:25-27).

The descriptions of Abraham are not uniform: at times he appears as a lonely migrant, at others as a chieftain, head of a large family, or as a warrior. Factual details about the patriarch are difficult to establish, for his real significance lies in what is often called "inner history," through which those who looked to Abraham as a forefather gained understanding of themselves as "people of the promise" and attained, a sense of destiny and an appreciation of their particular relationship to their deity. We have noted earlier that some Abrahamic traditions coincide with information coming from Nuzi, which would place Abraham in the Middle Bronze era.

After their victory, the Hyksos established a parasitical rule of political and economic oppression — a kind of ancient Soviet Union — from which the Egyptian peasants suffered for 200 years, or until they found a way to rebel. There was another bloody civil war, culminating in a siege of the Hyksos stronghold of Avaris in 1550 BC. The warring parties negotiated a settlement in which the Hyksos would be permitted to leave peaceably. This agreement was a mistake on Egypt’s part. They should have continued the seige until the Semites starved. Had they done so, history would have taken a different, and probably a much better course through the next 3500 years.

But not all of the Hyksos left Egypt. Some remained secretly and mingled with the Egyptians. These stay-behinds became the Hebrews. One of them, Joseph, wormed his way into the confidence of the Pharaoh and was given the authority of a Viceroy. Using this authority, Joseph levied grain taxes that left the state warehouses full and left the Egyptian people with no local grain reserves. The agricultural practice of the time was to use the grain saved in good years to feed the people in poor ones. That practice, however, was predicated on the assumption that the grain would be doled out to the nation in order to provide for its continued well-being.

However, with a “Jew” holding the keys to the government’s warehouses, this assumption completely broke down. Joseph used the poor years to create a famine, which inflated grain prices, which obliged the Egyptians to sell all their property in order to buy food to eat, and, when they had no more property left to sell, to sell themselves into slavery. It was the first time in history (so far as is known) that the Jews spoiled a Gentile country through economic exploitation. They have used this same pattern again and again under one ideological disguise or another, even unto this day.

ACCORDING to biblical tradition, the Hebrews are peoples descended from Shem, one of Noah's sons, through Eber, the eponymous ancestor, and Abraham. Gen. 7:22 f., reports that the flood destroyed all life except that in Noah's ark; consequently, the whole human family descended from Noah and his sons: Japheth, Ham and Shem. As yet, not all of the names of eponymous ancestors in the family lines can be identified, 1 but some probabilities are listed in Chart 6.

From Shem, through Arpachshad and Shelah came Eber, the eponymous ancestor of the Hebrews, and from his descendants through Peleg, Reu, Sereg and Nahor came Terah, the father of Abram and his brothers Nahor and Haran. It becomes clear that if "Hebrews" are descendants of Eber, then others besides those of Abraham's line would be included (see Gen. 10:25-27).

The descriptions of Abraham are not uniform: at times he appears as a lonely migrant, at others as a chieftain, head of a large family, or as a warrior. Factual details about the patriarch are difficult to establish, for his real significance lies in what is often called "inner history," through which those who looked to Abraham as a forefather gained understanding of themselves as "people of the promise" and attained, a sense of destiny and an appreciation of their particular relationship to their deity. We have noted earlier that some Abrahamic traditions coincide with information coming from Nuzi, which would place Abraham in the Middle Bronze era.

The people whose remains have been found by Professor Petrie buried their dead in open situated in the central court. But his most interesting discovery is that of long subterranean passages, once faced with masonry, and furnished with niches for lamps, where the mysteries of Serapis were celebrated. At the entrance of one of them pious visitors to the shrine have scratched their vows on the wall of rock. Those who are interested in the discovery should consult Dr. Botti's memoir on L'Acropole d'Alexandrie et le Sérapeum , presented to the Archæological Society of Alexandria, 17th August 1895.

In a hieroglyphic stela lately discovered at Saqqârah, and now in the Gizeh Museum, we read of an earlier parallel to the Tyrian Camp at Memphis seen by Herodotos. We learn from the stela that, in the time of King Ai, in the closing days of the eighteenth dynasty, there was already a similar Camp or quarter at Memphis which was assigned to the Hittites. The inscription is further interesting as showing that the authority of Ai was acknowledged at Memphis, the capital of Northern Egypt, as well as in the Thebaid.

Lastly, Professor Hommel seems to have found the name of the Zakkur or Zakkal, the kinsfolk and associates of the Philistines, in a broken cuneiform text which relates to one of the Kassite kings of Babylonia not long before the epoch of Khu-n-Aten. Here mention is made not only of the city of Arka in Phœnicia, but also of the city of Zaqqalû. In Zaqqalû we must recognise the Zakkur of Egyptian history. I may add that Khar or Khal, the name given by the Egyptians to the southern portion of Palestine, is identified by Professor Maspero with the Horites of the Old Testament.


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