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Electricity and wheels (classic reprint) - Electricity and wheels - Internet Archive



A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill . A water wheel consists of a wheel (usually constructed from wood or metal), with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface. Most commonly, the wheel is mounted vertically on a horizontal axle , but can also be mounted horizontally on a vertical shaft, for example the tub or Norse . Vertical wheels can transmit power either through the axle or via a ring gear and typically drive belts or gears; horizontal wheels usually directly drive their load.

Water wheels were still in commercial use well into the 20th century but they are no longer in common use. Uses included milling flour in gristmills , grinding wood into pulp for papermaking , hammering wrought iron , machining, ore crushing and pounding fiber for use in the manufacture of cloth .

Some water wheels are fed by water from a mill pond, which is formed when a flowing stream is dammed. A channel for the water flowing to or from a water wheel is called a mill race . The race bringing water from the mill pond to the water wheel is a headrace ; the one carrying water after it has left the wheel is commonly referred to as a tailrace . [1]

If you're trying to publish one, read the full documentation to learn how to set up GitHub Pages for your repository, organization, or user account.

One of the reasons we built Trev was to get people thinking about the energy they use for mobility. Most people appreciate that using tonnes of machinery to transport a 75 kg person uses a lot more energy than necessary. But some people get a little too inspired: Why don’t you put generators on the wheels?

Generators on the wheels is not a bad idea. The electric motors used in most electric and hybrid cars can act as motors converting electrical power to mechanical power, or as generators converting mechanical power to electrical power. Working as a generator, the motor can convert the kinetic (movement) energy of the car into electrical energy, and this energy can be used to partly recharge the battery. But converting the kinetic energy of the car to electrical energy slows the car. It is called regenerative braking , and the braking force that can be achieved is about the same as the driving force that can be achieved by converting electricity to motion.

Regenerative braking cannot convert all of the kinetic energy of the car into electrical energy—some of the energy is dissipated by resistance forces in the tyres and bearings and by aerodynamic drag, and some is dissipated as heat in the motor/generator and in the electronic controllers. But some of the kinetic energy can be converted to electricity and stored for later use—which is better than occurs with normal friction braking, where all of the kinetic energy is dissipated and none of it can be recovered.

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill . A water wheel consists of a wheel (usually constructed from wood or metal), with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface. Most commonly, the wheel is mounted vertically on a horizontal axle , but can also be mounted horizontally on a vertical shaft, for example the tub or Norse . Vertical wheels can transmit power either through the axle or via a ring gear and typically drive belts or gears; horizontal wheels usually directly drive their load.

Water wheels were still in commercial use well into the 20th century but they are no longer in common use. Uses included milling flour in gristmills , grinding wood into pulp for papermaking , hammering wrought iron , machining, ore crushing and pounding fiber for use in the manufacture of cloth .

Some water wheels are fed by water from a mill pond, which is formed when a flowing stream is dammed. A channel for the water flowing to or from a water wheel is called a mill race . The race bringing water from the mill pond to the water wheel is a headrace ; the one carrying water after it has left the wheel is commonly referred to as a tailrace . [1]

If you're trying to publish one, read the full documentation to learn how to set up GitHub Pages for your repository, organization, or user account.

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill . A water wheel consists of a wheel (usually constructed from wood or metal), with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface. Most commonly, the wheel is mounted vertically on a horizontal axle , but can also be mounted horizontally on a vertical shaft, for example the tub or Norse . Vertical wheels can transmit power either through the axle or via a ring gear and typically drive belts or gears; horizontal wheels usually directly drive their load.

Water wheels were still in commercial use well into the 20th century but they are no longer in common use. Uses included milling flour in gristmills , grinding wood into pulp for papermaking , hammering wrought iron , machining, ore crushing and pounding fiber for use in the manufacture of cloth .

Some water wheels are fed by water from a mill pond, which is formed when a flowing stream is dammed. A channel for the water flowing to or from a water wheel is called a mill race . The race bringing water from the mill pond to the water wheel is a headrace ; the one carrying water after it has left the wheel is commonly referred to as a tailrace . [1]

If you're trying to publish one, read the full documentation to learn how to set up GitHub Pages for your repository, organization, or user account.

One of the reasons we built Trev was to get people thinking about the energy they use for mobility. Most people appreciate that using tonnes of machinery to transport a 75 kg person uses a lot more energy than necessary. But some people get a little too inspired: Why don’t you put generators on the wheels?

Generators on the wheels is not a bad idea. The electric motors used in most electric and hybrid cars can act as motors converting electrical power to mechanical power, or as generators converting mechanical power to electrical power. Working as a generator, the motor can convert the kinetic (movement) energy of the car into electrical energy, and this energy can be used to partly recharge the battery. But converting the kinetic energy of the car to electrical energy slows the car. It is called regenerative braking , and the braking force that can be achieved is about the same as the driving force that can be achieved by converting electricity to motion.

Regenerative braking cannot convert all of the kinetic energy of the car into electrical energy—some of the energy is dissipated by resistance forces in the tyres and bearings and by aerodynamic drag, and some is dissipated as heat in the motor/generator and in the electronic controllers. But some of the kinetic energy can be converted to electricity and stored for later use—which is better than occurs with normal friction braking, where all of the kinetic energy is dissipated and none of it can be recovered.

As outlined in the paper on Transport and the Hydrogen Economy , nuclear power is relevant to road transport and motor vehicles in three respects:

In July 2017 Volvo, owned by Geely of China, announced that from 2019 all its models would be either fully electric or hybrid, and that this move “marks the end of the solely combustion engine-powered car.” It will no longer develop cars with only an internal combustion (IC) engine. In the same week, the French government said it planned to end the sale of IC engine cars by 2040.

China has the biggest fleet of battery-electric bicycles, with more than 150 million in service, and 36 million manufactured each year. It also increased its electric buses from 29,500 in 2014 to over 170,000 in 2015. Hanergy is promoting solar EVs, with built-in thin-film PV generating 8-10 kWh per day.

Electricity is a form of energy. Electricity is the flow of electrons. All matter is made up of atoms, and an atom has a center, called a nucleus. The nucleus contains positively charged particles called protons and uncharged particles called neutrons. The nucleus of an atom is surrounded by negatively charged particles called electrons. The negative charge of an electron is equal to the positive charge of a proton, and the number of electrons in an atom is usually equal to the number of protons.

To solve the problem of sending electricity over long distances,  George Westinghouse  developed a device called a transformer.

Despite its great importance in our daily lives, most of us rarely stop to think what life would be like without electricity. Yet like air and water, we tend to take electricity for granted. Everyday, we use electricity to do many functions for us -- from lighting and heating/cooling our homes, to being the power source for televisions and computers. Electricity is a controllable and convenient form of energy used in the applications of heat, light and power.

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill . A water wheel consists of a wheel (usually constructed from wood or metal), with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface. Most commonly, the wheel is mounted vertically on a horizontal axle , but can also be mounted horizontally on a vertical shaft, for example the tub or Norse . Vertical wheels can transmit power either through the axle or via a ring gear and typically drive belts or gears; horizontal wheels usually directly drive their load.

Water wheels were still in commercial use well into the 20th century but they are no longer in common use. Uses included milling flour in gristmills , grinding wood into pulp for papermaking , hammering wrought iron , machining, ore crushing and pounding fiber for use in the manufacture of cloth .

Some water wheels are fed by water from a mill pond, which is formed when a flowing stream is dammed. A channel for the water flowing to or from a water wheel is called a mill race . The race bringing water from the mill pond to the water wheel is a headrace ; the one carrying water after it has left the wheel is commonly referred to as a tailrace . [1]

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill . A water wheel consists of a wheel (usually constructed from wood or metal), with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface. Most commonly, the wheel is mounted vertically on a horizontal axle , but can also be mounted horizontally on a vertical shaft, for example the tub or Norse . Vertical wheels can transmit power either through the axle or via a ring gear and typically drive belts or gears; horizontal wheels usually directly drive their load.

Water wheels were still in commercial use well into the 20th century but they are no longer in common use. Uses included milling flour in gristmills , grinding wood into pulp for papermaking , hammering wrought iron , machining, ore crushing and pounding fiber for use in the manufacture of cloth .

Some water wheels are fed by water from a mill pond, which is formed when a flowing stream is dammed. A channel for the water flowing to or from a water wheel is called a mill race . The race bringing water from the mill pond to the water wheel is a headrace ; the one carrying water after it has left the wheel is commonly referred to as a tailrace . [1]

If you're trying to publish one, read the full documentation to learn how to set up GitHub Pages for your repository, organization, or user account.

One of the reasons we built Trev was to get people thinking about the energy they use for mobility. Most people appreciate that using tonnes of machinery to transport a 75 kg person uses a lot more energy than necessary. But some people get a little too inspired: Why don’t you put generators on the wheels?

Generators on the wheels is not a bad idea. The electric motors used in most electric and hybrid cars can act as motors converting electrical power to mechanical power, or as generators converting mechanical power to electrical power. Working as a generator, the motor can convert the kinetic (movement) energy of the car into electrical energy, and this energy can be used to partly recharge the battery. But converting the kinetic energy of the car to electrical energy slows the car. It is called regenerative braking , and the braking force that can be achieved is about the same as the driving force that can be achieved by converting electricity to motion.

Regenerative braking cannot convert all of the kinetic energy of the car into electrical energy—some of the energy is dissipated by resistance forces in the tyres and bearings and by aerodynamic drag, and some is dissipated as heat in the motor/generator and in the electronic controllers. But some of the kinetic energy can be converted to electricity and stored for later use—which is better than occurs with normal friction braking, where all of the kinetic energy is dissipated and none of it can be recovered.

As outlined in the paper on Transport and the Hydrogen Economy , nuclear power is relevant to road transport and motor vehicles in three respects:

In July 2017 Volvo, owned by Geely of China, announced that from 2019 all its models would be either fully electric or hybrid, and that this move “marks the end of the solely combustion engine-powered car.” It will no longer develop cars with only an internal combustion (IC) engine. In the same week, the French government said it planned to end the sale of IC engine cars by 2040.

China has the biggest fleet of battery-electric bicycles, with more than 150 million in service, and 36 million manufactured each year. It also increased its electric buses from 29,500 in 2014 to over 170,000 in 2015. Hanergy is promoting solar EVs, with built-in thin-film PV generating 8-10 kWh per day.


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