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General systems theory is about broadly applicable concepts and principles, as opposed to concepts and principles applicable to one domain of knowledge. It distinguishes dynamic or active systems from static or passive systems. Active systems are activity structures or components that interact in behaviours and processes. Passive systems are structures and components that are being processed. E.g. a program is passive when it is a disc file and active when it runs in memory. [2] The field is related to systems thinking and systems engineering .

The term "general systems theory" originates from Bertalanffy 's general systems theory (GST). His ideas were adopted by others including Kenneth E. Boulding , William Ross Ashby and Anatol Rapoport working in mathematics, psychology, biology, game theory and social network analysis .

Sociological systems thinking started earlier, in the 19th century. Stichweh states: [3] "... Since its beginnings the social sciences were an important part of the establishment of systems theory... the two most influential suggestions were the comprehensive sociological versions of systems theory which were proposed by Talcott Parsons since the 1950s and by Niklas Luhmann since the 1970s." References include Parsons' action theory [4] and Luhmann's social systems theory. [5]


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